Eye conditions such as cataracts, conjunctivitis and other common conditions are well known everywhere. But what about the rare eye conditions that seem to be more likely to be part of a cartoon than real medical conditions?
Here are the 6 most interesting, unusual eye conditions we have encountered.
Proptosis (bulging eyes)
Proptosis is a condition of protruding eyes. These eye conditions can be congenital, but can also develop throughout life. It can be caused by inflammation in the orbit behind the eye, inflammation of the eye muscles, expansive process in the orbit, sinus infection, trauma or inflammation of the thyroid gland. However, it always requires careful examination and analysis of the cause, so if it occurs, consult our ophthalmologists.
Proptosis is always a serious eye condition. The protrusion of the eye is accompanied by pressure on all ocular structures, including the optic nerve. As intraocular pressure increases, so does the risk of developing glaucoma.
When severe proptosis occurs, the eyelids may not close completely during normal blinking or sleeping, causing the cornea to dry significantly. Artificial tears or gels should be inserted several times a day to relieve discomfort and protect the cornea from severe drying.
As a treatment for the consequences of proptosis, such as dry eyes and tear film disorders, or in the treatment of exposed cornea (in case of incomplete closing of the lids), gels that lubricate the cornea are used to protect it. The ophthalmologist also prescribes corticosteroids, while in the worst case, the eye itself is surgically closed.
An examination by an ophthalmologist is mandatory, who will determine the condition of the eye and prescribe what should be used. The therapy should not be used without the approval of an ophthalmologist and taken on its own.
Heterochromia (different eye colors)
Heterochromia is a condition that describes the different colors of the iris in the eye. Some people have a different color of the iris in the eye itself, i.e. the iris has two colors and others have eyes of a different color.
These eye conditions occur due to melanin. Melanin is a pigment that gives color to our skin, hair and eyes. Depending on how much melanin is developed in the eye, such a color is obtained. If melanin is more present, then the color of the eye is brown or black, while vice versa the color of the eyes will be blue or green.
Heterochromia can be inherited or caused by illness or injury. It is usually not treated, but there is an exception only when it is associated with a disease.
Haemolacria (bloody tears)
Bloody tears or haemorrhage are rare conditions of the eye where the eye itself produces tears that are partly composed of blood. Haemolacria is a symptom of a number of eye diseases. Therefore, if bloody tears flow from your eyes, consult our ophthalmologists immediately.
- Causes of bloody tears can be:
- Hormonal changes;
- Conjunctival injuries;
- Blocked tear duct;
- High blood pressure;
- Blood disorders, such as hemophilia;
- Pyogenic granuloma;
- Melanoma and tumors.
Most cases of bloody tears usually subside quickly, just as they started. In some cases, they may last longer if the cause is hypertension, malignant melanoma, or injury. However, if bloody tears flow from your eyes, consult our ophthalmologists immediately.
Polycoria (multiple pupils)
Polychoria is a condition of the eye that manifests itself with the appearance of two or more pupils in one eye. It may be present in one eye or in both. Multiple pupils can be seen when looking in a mirror. If the eye is well pigmented and the second pupil is small, it may present with a blurred image or photophobia. The underlying cause of polycythemia is unknown. However, there are several diseases that occur more often such as: retinal detachment, polar cataract, glaucoma, abnormal development of the pupil margins, abnormal development of the eyes.
These eye conditions are rarely treated because they do not interfere with people’s vision, but in people who are bothered by polycystic ovaries and their vision is not sharp, a contact lens is placed to cover the abnormal pupils or surgery is performed.
Coloboma (cat’s eyes)
Coloboma is a condition of the eye when tissue is missing, in or around the eye, at birth. The eye develops rapidly during the first three months of fetal growth. The choroidal fissure generally closes by the seventh week of pregnancy. If it does not close, a coloboma or space forms. There are several types of Coloboma and it can affect only one eye or both at the same time.
Coloboma is a harmless and stable condition, which does not affect vision if only the iris is affected but if the retina is affected it can affect vision depending on whether the macula is affected or not.
There is no cure for Coloboma, and treatment varies depending on the type of Coloboma. People with iris coloboma can wear colored contact lenses to make the iris look round. Surgery can correct the appearance of the iris. Our ophthalmologists may recommend certain treatments if your child has coloboma in one eye. To make sure that amblyopia (lazy eye) does not develop, the ophthalmologist will want to cover one eye to prevent amblyopia from developing. Sometimes this treatment can improve vision in the eyes even in the case of severe colobomas.
Albinism is a disorder characterized by a complete or partial lack of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes due to the absence of an enzyme involved in the secretion of melanin. Albinism is accompanied by a number of visual impairments, such as photophobia, nystagmus, and astigmatism. These people are characterized by the lack of skin tone, harmless iris in the eye and due to their specificity they immediately stand out from the crowd.
To confirm ocular albinism, a subspecialty examination is required, for a detailed examination of the eye and the fundus.
Ocular albinism has no other symptoms and the skin and hair of these patients have normal pigmentation. People with albinism almost always have poor eyesight and very often strabismus. It is very important to diagnose in time, because diopter correction can help develop vision that is impaired due to the primary condition.