• Vitrectomy is one of the most complex eye surgeries. Why?

Vitrectomy is one of the most complex microsurgical operations of the eye and is often the only treatment for many diseases of the posterior segment of the eye. The operation is performed through four small openings – smaller than 1 mm, on the white of the eye, through which it enters the vitreous and it is removed, then it is replaced with a special gas or silicone oil, and the holes in the retina are closed with a laser. Retinal ablation, various types of eye injuries are also conditions treated with vitrectomy. Diabetics are at risk for patients who may need this intervention. The procedure is completely safe and painless.

  • Since it is a complex intervention, what is the way to determine that it is the right solution?

Regular check-ups are most important, especially in the high-risk group of patients. Everyone else needs a quick response, right after the onset of symptoms. The first symptoms of retinal ablation are often flashes, lightning flashes, and blackheads in the visual field. When the retina ruptures, a small amount of blood may appear in the vitreous space. The condition worsens with the appearance of a curtain in the field of view. When the detachment reaches the center of vision or macula, which can occur in one to two days, vision decreases and patients can no longer read or recognize other people. At the first meeting with the doctor, he will decide what examination will be done to the patient according to his condition. Most often in these cases a detailed retinological examination is performed which involves dilation of the pupils to see the condition of the eye, determination of visual acuity, measurement of eye pressure, examination of the fundus, echo / biometrics echography and optical coherence topography of the posterior segment, but only in cases where the condition of the eye allows (depending on the bleeding).

  • What eye conditions are treated with this intervention?

Indications for vitrectomy are any extensive changes that have occurred inside the eye or retina, the retina as a result of various diseases or injury to the eye. These include advanced proliferative diabetic retinopathy, bleeding in the eye (vitreous), detachment (ablation) and retinal defects, uveitis, endophthalmitis, the presence of abnormal tissues. Vitrectomy also treats eye injuries and removes lens masses after a complication during cataract surgery.

  • How long is the postoperative period and when can the patient return to daily responsibilities?

The operation can be performed under local and sometimes under general anesthesia. The eye is not red and sore after the operation. Recovery is fast. It is necessary to apply therapy with drops and ointment for two to three weeks. The eye must be closed one day. Follow-up examinations are scheduled, one day after the operation, then seven days and three weeks after the intervention. With simple injuries, the patient can return to daily activities ten days after surgery. During those ten days it is necessary to rest, ie to lie in a position recommended by the doctor. Working on a computer, watching TV and reading, is allowed using the other eye.

  • Is there ever a need to repeat the procedure and how can it be prevented?

The procedure can be repeated if the cornea peels off again or bleeds, of course when the silicone oil needs to be removed. However, it is recommended to have regular check-ups to detect different eye conditions and to respond to their treatment to improve the condition before undergoing vitrectomy. Regular examinations can monitor and detect any changes in the eye. It is especially important that the examination covers the dilation of the pupils, because in that way the posterior segment of the eye can be seen, which is, in fact, an indicator of the existence of a problem.

  • Does the advancement of technology affect modern medicine, specifically ophthalmology?

Advances in technology can be seen in two directions, in the context of the benefits it brings to patients and at the same time to doctors, surgeons. Modern diagnostics, such as the Pentacam or IOL Master, provide detailed mapping of the condition of the eye, or measuring the intensity of the lens of the eye in sequence. It greatly helps in defining the next steps in the treatment of the patient. Advanced technology also helps reduce eye trauma. In our case, vitrectomy uses a vitrectomy that makes openings smaller than 1 mm. It contributes to a better quality of life for the patient, after the intervention or examination.