There is a saying, “Life begins at the age of 40.” However, as you enter the fourth decade of life, your body is slowly showing signs of your caring for it.   Even if you have had clear vision all your life, if you have not worn glasses or contact lenses, after the age of 40 you may notice that you need more effort to notice the letters in the newspaper, the numbers on the mobile keyboard and so on. Not all eye diseases are seriously threatening to your eyesight, but they are serious enough to make you uncomfortable and nervous in everyday life. Here is what you can expect from your eyes after the age of 40 and what you can do to maintain clear vision for many years to come.  


What causes them: Dry eyes are a problem for both men and women, but in women they are more significant due to hormonal imbalance. They are most often a multifactorial condition that leads to discomfort, redness, and irritation and in rheumatic diseases to blindness.   What can help: Consult your ophthalmologist before using any therapy. There are eye drops on the market that only reduce redness and tingling, but do not help with dry eyes. Artificial tears in the form of drops will help normalize the tear film.  


What causes it: After the age of 40, the accommodation, i.e. the flexibility of the lens in the eye, decreases, which is why you may need more light while reading or move the mobile phone away from you to read a message.   What can help: The only solution in this case is to have a detailed examination with dilated pupils at your ophthalmologist. Depending on the diagnosis, you may only need glasses or contact lenses. If you can not imagine yourself with eyeglasses or you are not comfortable with the idea of ​​contact lenses, surgery can be performed to replace the natural lens with an artificial lifelong lens with which you can easily read, drive, work on a computer. The advantage of this intervention is that there is no cataract and reoperation of the eyes. It could be said that we get three in one, i.e. diopter correction for distance, proximity and removal of the lens.   If you have distance glasses, with laser diopter correction, after two or three days of postoperative recovery, you will see clearly again.   This type of intervention is limited in a smaller number of patients due to age and the need for diopter reading.  


What causes it: Increased intraocular pressure can damage the optic nerve. It is the most common disease at this age and the number one cause of blindness in the world. The patient feels nothing, and the nerve suffers from ocular pressure and acquires tubular central vision. If not treated in time, it leads to blindness.   What can help: A thorough examination by your ophthalmologist each year and a check of eye pressure, optic nerve and a wide pupil. Unfortunately, glaucoma is treated for life.  


What causes it: The natural lens in the eye is basically made up of water and protein. As we age, those proteins can coalesce, causing cataracts. Cataracts can cause blurring of the lens, and with it double vision, blurred vision, glare around bright objects, difficult or pale color recognition, poor spatial orientation.   What can help: Cataracts are treated only with a phaco-method that implants monofocal or multifocal lenses that are lifelong. The advantage of multifocal lenses is that you will not wear reading glasses, because with them you get clear vision for all distances, even for a computer.   However, when examining the eye, which lens is right for you depends on the results, the profession (programmer or driver), as well as the positive character traits for adapting these premium lenses.  


What causes it: The macula is located at the back, in the center of the retina, and is made up of a million photoreceptors that provide clear central vision. Due to atrophy of part of the retinal layers, the retina begins to divide and the central vision is gradually lost.   What can help: Regular ophthalmologic examinations with pupil dilation are necessary, as this condition is usually detected by accident. In general, treatment is with anti-VEGF injections, and a Mediterranean diet is recommended.